The full list of winners in the fields of medicine, physics, chemistry, literature, peace and economics

This year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in equal parts to Caroline R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldahl and K. Barry Sharpless to develop a “catch together” method that can be used for drug design.

Their work, known as click chemistry and orthogonal biological reactions, is used to make cancer drugs, map DNA, and create materials tailored for a specific purpose.

Hans Elegren, Secretary-General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, announced the winners Wednesday at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden.

Bertozzi is based at Stanford University in California, Meldal is based at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Sharpless is a subsidiary of Scripps Research, California.

Sharpless previously won the Nobel Prize in 2001. He is the fifth person to win the prize twice.

Last year, the prize was awarded to scientists Benjamin List and David W. C. Macmillan for finding an ingenious and environmentally cleaner way to build molecules that the Nobel Committee said “much benefit humanity”.

The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to a trio for their work in quantum mechanics

Three scientists jointly won this year’s Nobel Prize in Physics on Tuesday for their work in quantum information science that has important applications, for example in the field of cryptography.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences cited Alan Aspect and John F.

“Quantum information science is a vital and rapidly developing field,” said Eva Olsson, a member of the Nobel Committee. “It has broad and potential implications in areas such as secure transmission of information, quantum computing and sensor technology.”

“Its origin can be traced back to quantum mechanics,” she said. “Her predictions have opened the doors to another world, and they have shaken the foundations of how to interpret the measurements.”

Speaking on the phone at a news conference after the announcement, Zeilinger said he was “still shocked” to hear that he had been awarded the award.

“But it’s a very positive shock,” said Zeilinger, 77, who works at the University of Vienna.

Closer, Aspect and Tessellinger have been prominent in Nobel’s speculation for more than a decade. In 2010 they won the Wolf Prize in Israel, which is seen as a possible precursor to the Nobel Prize.

While physicists often tackle problems that at first glance seem a far cry from everyday concerns — tiny particles and the vast mysteries of space and time — their research provides the foundations for the many practical applications of science.

The prize was awarded last year to three scientists – Siokoro Manabe, Klaus Hesselmann and Giorgio Baresi – whose work has helped explain and predict nature’s complex forces, thus expanding our understanding of climate change.

The Nobel Prize in Medicine for the Swede who revealed the secrets of the DNA of Neanderthals

Techniques led by Papo allowed researchers to compare the genomes of modern humans with those of other hominins – Denisovans as well as Neanderthals.

“Just as you do archaeological excavations to discover the past, we do excavations in the human genome,” he said at a press conference at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig.

Swedish scientist Svante Pääbo in Leipzig, Germany. (AFP)

While Neanderthal bones were first discovered in the mid-19th century, it was by understanding their DNA – often referred to as the code of life – that scientists were able to fully understand the connections between species.

This included the time when modern humans and Neanderthals diverged as a species, about 800,000 years ago.

“Papao and his team surprisingly found that gene flow occurred from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens, showing that they had children together during periods of coexistence,” said Anna Wedel, chair of the Nobel Committee.

Gene transfer between hominin species affects how the modern human immune system reacts to infections, such as the coronavirus. People outside Africa have 1-2% of Neanderthal genes. Neanderthals were never in Africa, so there is no known direct contribution to people in sub-Saharan Africa.

Papo and his team were able to extract DNA from a small finger bone found in a Siberian cave, which led to the identification of a new species of ancient humans they called Denisovans.

Weddell called it an “exciting discovery” that showed Neanderthals and Denisovans were sister groups that separated from each other about 600,000 years ago. Denisovan genes are found in up to 6 percent of modern humans in Asia and Southeast Asia, suggesting that interbreeding occurred there as well.

“By mixing with them after migrating from Africa, Homo sapiens picked up sequences that improved their chances of survival in their new environments,” Wedel said. For example, Tibetans and Denisovans share a gene that helps them adapt to higher altitudes.

Babu said he was surprised to learn of his victory, and at first thought it was an elaborate joke by his teammates or a call about his summer home in Sweden.

“So I was having my last cup of tea to go and take my daughter to the nanny where she stayed for one night, and then I got this call from Sweden,” he said in an interview on the Nobel Prizes homepage. . I thought, ‘Oh, the lawn mower broke or something’ at the summer house.

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Swedish scientist Svante Pappo for his discoveries in human evolution.
The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Swedish scientist Svante Pappo for his discoveries in human evolution. (AFP)

He also wondered what would have happened if Neanderthals survived another 40,000 years.

“Will we see worse racism against Neanderthals, because they were somewhat different from us? Or will we see our place in the living world in a completely different way when we have other forms of humans very similar to us but different.”

Babu, 67, has conducted his award-winning studies at the University of Munich and the Max Planck Institute. During the festivities that followed the press conference in Leipzig, his colleagues threw him into a pool. Paabo took it in good humor, splashing his feet and laughing.

Papo’s father, Sonny Bergstrom, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1982, the eighth time the son or daughter of a Nobel laureate has won. In his book Neanderthals: In Search of the Lost Genome, Babu described himself as Bergstrom’s “secret extramarital son” – something he also briefly mentioned on Monday.

He said his father had a “great interest” in his work, but that his mother had more than encouraged him.

“The biggest influence in my life was definitely my mother, who I grew up with,” he said in an interview with Noble. “And in a sense, I’m a little sad that she can’t experience this day. She’s been kind of in the sciences, and she’s motivated and encouraged me a lot over the years.”

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